[智悲翻译]伊恩•斯蒂文森博士关于轮回转世的研究

Dr. Ian Stevenson’s Reincarnation Research

 

作者:凯文·威廉姆斯

By Kevin Williams

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作者介绍:

凯文·威廉姆斯(Kevin Williams)是濒死体验的研究专家,他于1996年获得计算机科学学位,并学习了网站开发,是著名的濒死体验网站“http://www.near-death.com”的创建人。该网站包含了丰富而深刻的有关濒死体验的书籍,其濒死体验的经典之作,名为《死亡是一生中最好的事》(Nothing Better Than Death)。

伊恩·斯蒂文森(1918—2007)是位精神病学专家,曾在弗吉尼亚大学医学院工作五十年。从1957年到1967年间,他担任精神病学系主任;1967年到2001年间,担任精神病学卡尔森教授(译者注:卡尔森教授是荣誉称号。因美国物理学家切斯特·弗罗伊德·卡尔森捐款支持了研究,故称为卡尔森教授);自2002年至离世前,他一直担任精神病学的研究教授。他还是美国弗吉尼亚大学调查超心理学现象的感知科学研究部的创始人和领导者。这些超心理学现象研究包括轮回转世、濒死体验、灵魂出窍、死后通灵、临终幻象,以及意识形态的变化和超心理。他研究轮回转世时证明了记忆和身体伤害能够从上一世转到下一世,并藉此研究蜚声国际。他花了四十年的时间到处旅行,研究了全世界3000 个能回忆起前世的儿童案例。他的严谨研究表明这些孩子有着与众不同的能力、疾病、恐慌症和旧癖(philias),这些情况无法用环境和遗传因素解释。

 

目录

1. 伊恩·斯蒂文森博士的研究介绍

2. 斯蒂文森博士大部分研究的五个共同特征

3. 胎记和先天缺陷与前世创伤相一致

4. 伤口和胎记的相互对应

5. 有两个及更多胎记的案例

6. 胎记与伤口有其他对应细节的案例

7. 先天缺陷的三个案例

8. 讨论

9. 致谢

10. 参考文献

11. 感知科学研究部的研究人员关于转世的文章

 

1. 伊恩·斯蒂文森博士研究介绍

伊恩·斯蒂文森博士对轮回的研究始于1960年,是从一名宣称能回忆前世的斯里兰卡儿童开始。他彻底地询问了这名孩童及其双亲——包括孩子忆起的前世父母。这使得斯蒂文森博士确信轮回转世有可能真实存在。同年,斯蒂文森博士在《美国心理研究学会杂志》上发表了两篇关于此名儿童回忆前世的文章。随着他发现越来越多的类似案例,他越来越渴望用科学研究的方法来测量轮回转世的可能性,而这一现象是最大的世界谜团之一,但以往一直被科学界所忽略。

1982年,斯蒂文森博士和其他人联合创立了科学探究协会。关于轮回转世,他写了大约300篇论文和14本书。1966年出版的《二十案例示轮回》成为了轮回转世研究年鉴上的经典之作。2003年,斯蒂文森博士出版了关于转世的第二本书《转世类型的欧洲案例》。1997年他出版了自己的代表作《轮回转世与生物学——胎记和先天缺陷的病因》(两卷、2268页),这本书主要关注的是儿童出生时所携带的畸形和其他异常,这些问题都无法从遗传、产前以及围产期(即分娩所致)的角度得到解释。这部不朽的经典之作中包括上百张照片,展示了他所发现的证据。它记载了有前世回忆和胎记的200个孩子的案例,这些回忆和胎记与孩子们忆起的前世生平及伤口相一致。1997年,斯蒂文森博士出版了这本书的缩略版,命名为《轮回转世与生物学——于此相逢》。斯蒂文森博士关于轮回转世的研究也成为其他两部重要作品的研究主题——汤姆·施罗德(华盛顿邮报记者)的《老灵魂:来自能回忆前世儿童的铁证》,以及吉姆·塔克博士(www.jimbtucker.com,弗吉尼亚大学精神病学专家)的《当你的小孩想起前世》。许多人,包括一些怀疑论者和学者,都认为斯蒂文森博士所提供的案例是目前为止关于轮回转世的最好证明。

在最初研究能回忆前世孩子的不同案例时,斯蒂文森博士饶有兴致地注意到一个事实,就是这些孩子经常带有与生俱来的胎记,而这些胎记被认为与他们前世被谋杀或其死亡经历有关。斯蒂文森关于胎记和先天性缺陷的研究对于证明轮回转世尤为重要——因为它提供了客观、图片化的证据,这比通过调查询问所获得的,那些孩子或成人的零碎回忆和报告要好得多——因为即使它们后来被证实,也无法赋予其同等的科学价值。

在斯蒂文森博士所发表的许多案例中,还提供了一些医院记录作为进一步的证据,这些文件通常是在当事者死亡后才出具。斯蒂文森博士把这些证据补充到他所研究和“完结”的、有胎记和先天性缺陷出现的案例中,他不能想象还会有比轮回更合适的其他解释。只有30% – 60%的缺陷可以归因于遗传、病毒感染或化学药品(如镇静剂萨利多胺或酒精对儿童所致损伤)所带来的先天性缺陷。除了这些已证实的原因,医学界对于其他40% 至70%的情形除了偶然,别无其他解释。现在,斯蒂文森成功地向我们解释了为什么一个人会生而就有缺陷,以及这些缺陷为什么会精确地出现在身体的某一部位而不是其他地方。

 

2. 斯蒂文森博士大部分研究的五个共同特征

在出现胎记和先天性缺陷的大多数案例中,目前的医学都无法对其作出解释,它们有一个到五个共同特征。

五个共同特征

1)在最不寻常的情形中,相信轮回的人希望能重生为某对夫妇或夫妇中某一方的小孩,因为相信这些特定的人会好好照顾他。这些预先的要求经常见于阿拉斯加州特林吉特印第安人和西藏人。

2)比上述情况发生频率更高的是出现预言性梦境。已经死去的人会出现在孕妇或者尚未怀孕的妇女梦中,告知她,他或她将会重生于此。有时一些亲朋好友也会做类似的梦,这些梦可以和准妈妈联系在一起。斯蒂文森博士发现这些预言性梦境在缅甸和阿拉斯加印第安人中特别多见。

3)在这些文化传统中,会检查新生儿的身体是否有可辨认的标记,以便确认众人熟知的死者是否已经重生。这种对身份标记的探寻在相信轮回的文化中非常常见,尤其是特林吉特印第安人和尼日利亚的伊博族。西非的很多部落会在新近死亡的人身上做标记,以便能够认出他或她的转世重生。

发生频率最高的事件或是与转世相关最常见的共同特征,大概就是孩童能够回忆起自己的前世。孩子们经常在两岁到四岁之间开始谈论自己的记忆。在四到七岁之间这些幼儿的记忆会逐渐消失。当然也会有例外,比如一名孩童可以持续回忆他的前世,但会由于种种原因不说出来。

大多数孩童会频繁谈论他们的前世,并伴随着强烈的感情。对他们而言,通常很难辨别哪个世界才是真实的。他们通常经历着一种双重生活,只不过有时其中一种占主要,而有时则是另一种。这就是他们会用现在的语气谈论其前世的原因,比如“我有丈夫和两个孩子,他们生活在斋普尔”。基本上他们每个人都能说出他们的死因。

4)这些孩子更倾向于认为前世的双亲才是自己真正的父母,而不是现在的双亲,他们经常表达出想要回到前世父母身边的意愿。当找到前世的家庭、了知其过去生的生平细节时,就可以很明显地发现第五种特征(即孩子惹人注目或不同寻常的行为)的来源。

5)例如,如果孩子出生于印度低种姓家庭,而他的前世则是较高种姓家庭中的一员,那他在新家庭中便会觉得不舒服。他会要求大家无微不至地服侍或照顾他,并且可能会拒绝穿廉价的衣服。斯蒂文森给我们举了几个这种类型(即出现不同寻常行为)的案例。

在他研究的35%案例中,前世非自然死亡的孩子都会有恐惧症。比如,如果前世溺水而亡,那么今生水深没顶时便常常会觉得恐惧。如果是被枪杀,通常会表现为经常性地害怕枪支或高声巨响。如果死于交通事故,则会对乘坐汽车、公交或卡车有一种恐惧感。

另一种经常被注意到的异常行为模式,斯蒂文森博士将之称为旧癖(philias),所涉及的儿童经常想要吃和穿不同于自身文化的食物和衣服。如果一名孩童的前生已经养成嗜酒好烟、吸毒成瘾的习惯,那么他可能会表现出对这些物品的需求,并且年纪尚幼时就对它们产生渴望。

这些带有前世回忆的孩子中,有许多都展现出前世已拥有的能力或天赋。与前世性别相反的孩子今生通常很难适应新性别。这些问题与“变性”有关,可能会导致他们在以后的生活中变成同性恋。重生为男孩的“前世女孩”可能会喜欢打扮得像女孩一样,或更愿意和女孩玩耍。

直到现在,人们的这些怪癖对于传统的精神病学专家来说一直都是个谜,因为无论如何,这些案例中孩子们的行为都不能怪罪于父母。最终,轮回转世的研究使这些问题有了些许眉目。过去,医生们将这些怪癖归咎于某种荷尔蒙的缺乏或过剩,但现在他们将不得不做一些反思。

1992年6月11日—13日,普林斯顿大学举办了第十一届科学探索学会年会。会上斯蒂文森博士发表了题为“胎记和先天缺陷与前世伤口相一致”的论文,该论文提供了或许是最有力的、证实轮回转世存在的科学依据;文中所展示的证据表明,诸如胎记和畸形等身体特征可以从前世保留到今生。

 

3.胎记和先天缺陷与前世伤口相一致

来源:斯蒂文森博士,弗吉尼亚州(邮编22908),夏洛茨维尔市,弗吉尼亚大学医学院精神病学系

 

摘要:为什么带色的胎记(痣)会出现在皮肤的特定位置?人们对此几乎一无所知。大多数先天缺陷的病因也同样不为人知。声称可以回忆前世的孩童,其中大约有35%带有胎记或先天性缺陷,有的人兼而有之,他们(或受调查的成年人)将其归因于所能忆起的前世所受的伤。我们研究调查了210例这类儿童。

胎记通常是无毛发、有褶皱的皮肤区域,有些区域的色素沉积很少、甚至没有(色素减退型斑点),而其他区域则色素沉积增加(色素沉着过度的痣)。先天性缺陷差不多都是稀有类型。有些案例确认了已故者各种前世细节与孩子的陈述无误吻合,此时发现孩子的胎记或先天缺陷几乎总是和亡者的伤口紧密相关。49个案例中,43个获得了医院证明(通常是验尸报告),证实了伤口和胎记(或先天性缺陷)的一致性。并且几乎没有证据表明孩子的父母或者其他被调查者会强加一个错误身份给孩子,以解释孩子的胎记或先天性缺陷。在这些案例中,至少一些细节(包括胎记和先天性缺陷)的发生,需要某些超自然过程的参与。

 

背景介绍

尽管数据表明,在每个成年人身上,痣(色素沉着过度的痣)的数量平均有9-15个(Pack and Davis,1956),但除了那些和遗传病多发性神经纤维瘤有关的痣之外,它们的成因却少为人知;至于为什么胎记会出现在皮肤的某一处而不是另一处,这就更不为人知了。在少数例子中,痣所在的位置看似可以用遗传因素来解释(Cockayne,1993;Denaro,1944;Maruri,1961);但大部分胎记位置的起因现在仍然未知。很多(也许是绝大部分)先天性缺陷的成因也同样不为人知。在对大批先天性缺陷进行调查时,研究者致力于寻找其已知病因——比如化学药品所致畸形(如萨利多胺)、病毒感染和遗传性因素等,但这些案例中的 43%(Nelson and Holmes,1989)到65-70%(Wilson,1973)最终都被归类为“成因不明”。

在895例声称可以回忆前世(或被成人认为有前世)的孩童中,胎记和/或先天性缺陷能够归因于前世的有309例(35%)。这些例子中儿童的胎记或先天性缺陷和其所回忆起的前世伤口(通常是致命伤)或其他标记一致。本文记录了对这种说法真实性的调研。在同伴的帮助下,对210个案例的研究现已告一段落,我会在即将出版的书中披露其细节。本文概括了我们的调查结果。

声称能够回忆前世的儿童在世界各地皆有(Stevenson,1983;1987),但是在南亚国家中最容易发现。典型情况是,一名儿童几乎刚学会说话就会提及一些前世之事,此时年龄通常在两到三岁之间;而在五到七岁左右就不再谈论(Cook,Pasricha,Samararatne,Win Maung, and Stevenson,1983)。虽然一些儿童只能做一些模糊的描述,但其他的则能说出具体的名字和事件等细节,这就有利于找到与之对应的人的生平。在一些案例中,确认出来的前世是家人所认识的人,但许多案例并非如此。除了能说出一些可被证实的前世事情之外,很多儿童表现出的异常行为(如恐惧症)与这一世的家庭格格不入,但却与所推测或相关的前世行为保持一致(Stevenson,1987;1990)。

虽然这些孩子身上出现的一些胎记,就像每个成年人一样,不过是些“普通的”色素沉着过度的痣,但大部分却并不如此。它们反而更像是褶皱和疤痕,有时比周围皮肤略凹陷,没有毛发,明显的色素减退(色素减退型斑),或为葡萄酒色痣。当相关的胎记是色素沉着过度的痣时,通常总会大于“普通的”色素沉着过度的痣。同样地,这些案例中的先天性缺陷类型通常很少见,在“可识别的人类畸形模式”中基本看不到(Smith,1982)。

 

研究方法:

我调查这些案例的研究方法包括采访(经常是多次采访),对象是当事者以及两个家庭中的几个或多个成员。在少数特例中,我们只采访直接涉及人员。所有相关及现存的书面记录,尤其是死亡证明和验尸报告,都被找来且审查过。在某些案例中,被调查者说两个家庭以前素不相识,我尽了最大努力,排除信息被自然传递给孩子的一切可能性,比如通过一个几乎被淡忘、但熟识两个家庭的熟人传递。研究方法的细节可参考前期文献(Stevenson,1975;1987)

我并没有把所有身体上的标记都纳入为胎记,除非有直接目击者确认,它在孩子出生时就被注意到,或顶多在几周内就被发现。我询问过类似的胎记是否出现在其他家庭成员身上,几乎每个案例答案都是否认,但有七个案例不能排除遗传因素。

这里讨论的先天性缺陷是指那种在孩子一出生时就被注意到的缺陷。在对这些案例进行调查时,排除了先天性缺陷的已知诱因(再次申明,除了极少数例外),例如近亲关系(血亲)、母体孕期病毒感染,以及化学诱因(如酒精)。

 

结论

4.伤口和胎记的相互对应

如果胎记和伤口位于同一解剖位置的10平方厘米以内,就判定两者满足相互对应的要求;事实上,许多胎记和伤口的位置要比此标准近得多。有49个案例获得了医学证明(通常为验尸报告),其中,判定胎记和伤口一致或非常一致的有43例(88%),不符合的有6例。不一致的案例似乎需要作出不同的解释,这一点我会在其他地方进行探讨(在即将出版的书中)。图一展示的是一名印度儿童的胎记(一个色素减退型区域),他说记得前世是一名被近距离用霰弹猎枪枪杀的男人。图二则是病理学家所记录的伤口位置。(圆圈是由和我一起研究验尸报告的一位印度内科医师所画)。

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在获得验尸报告(或其他证明材料)的案例中,胎记和伤口一致的比例非常高(88%),这一结果使我们更加相信被调查者记忆亡者伤口的准确性,尤其是那些没能获得任何医疗文件的更多案例。被调查者的记忆会有误差,但并非所有被调查者的记忆误差都会产生干扰,会让人用胎记去对应一个并不存在的伤口;但在4个(也可能是5个)案例中,医疗文件能证实两者一致,但若完全依赖被调查者的回忆,就发现不了医疗文件所证实的一致性。

 

5.两个及更多胎记案例

当儿童有两个或两个以上的胎记,且每一个都与他所声称忆起的亡者伤口相吻合时,那种认为胎记和伤口一致纯属偶然的争论便减少了很多。图三所展示的是一种常见的皮肤异常(疣状表皮痣),位于一名泰国男子的后脑勺上。当还是一名儿童时,他能够回忆起其已故叔父的生平,他的叔父曾被重刀砸在脑袋上,几乎是当场死亡。图四所示的是该男子畸形的右脚大脚趾趾甲。这一点和他叔父的情况恰好吻合,他叔父去世之前,同一个脚趾也曾遭受多年慢性感染的病痛。

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这一系列案例中有18个案例,每个案例当事人身上的两个胎记吻合于枪伤的入口和出口。这当中的14例案例,某一个胎记会大于另一个;而其中又有9例清楚地表明,较小的胎记(通常为圆形)与子弹的入口吻合,而较大的胎记(通常为不规则形状)与子弹的出口相一致。这一观察报告与事实相符,即子弹出口几乎总是大于入口(Fatteh,1976;Gordon and Shapiro,1982)。

图五展示的是一名泰国男孩后脑勺上的一个小型圆形胎记,图六则是他头前部一个较大的不规则形胎记。男孩说他能忆起一个男人的一生,而这名男人死于后脑勺中枪。(死亡方式已得到证实,但没有获得医院记录)。除了我自己调查的这9例,米尔斯报道的另一起案例中,也发现有一个小型圆形胎记(和子弹入口一致),及一个与子弹出口相符的较大胎记(两者都得到了验尸报告的证实)(Mills,1989)。

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我计算了两个胎记恰好与两个伤口相吻合的可能性概率。一名成年男性平均皮肤表面积是1.6平方米(Spalteholz,1943)。如果我们把它想象为正方形、并铺在一个平面上,其尺寸大约为127厘米×127厘米,大概相当于160个10厘米见方的正方形(前文判断对应程度时提到过)。只有一个胎记的人,其胎记在160个小正方形的区域内与伤口位置一致的概率仅为1/160;然而,两个胎记对应两个伤口的概率却是(1/160)的平方,也就是1/25,600。(此算法假定胎记均匀地分布于皮肤表面,这并不准确【Pack,Lenson,and  Gerber,1952】;但我相信,变异对此处计算概率造成的影响可以忽略不计)

 

.胎记与伤口有其他对应细节的案例

一名泰国妇女在其背部中线附近有三个分散的线形色素减退型疤痕,类似于胎记。当她还是个孩子时,她回忆起前世曾是一名妇女,被别人在背部砍了三斧头而丧生。(被调查者证实了这种死亡方式,但没有获得医疗档案)。一名缅甸妇女的左侧胸部有两个天生的圆形胎记,它们稍稍有一些重叠,其中一个是另一个的一半大小。年幼时她说她记得前世是个女人,意外地被霰弹猎枪击中并丧生。一位可靠的被调查者说霰弹里装有两种不同型号的弹丸(此案例未获得医疗记录)。

另一名缅甸儿童说她记得死于先天性心脏病手术的姑妈的生平。这名儿童的胸部下方和上腹部中间位置附近有一条很长的、竖直的线性色素减退型胎记,此胎记和她姑妈心脏修补手术的切口相一致。(此案例中我找到了医疗记录)相形之下,在一名土耳其儿童的身上,有一条横跨其右上腹的水平线性胎记,很像外科医生所做的横向腹部切口疤痕。这名儿童说记得他祖父的生平,而他祖父死前得过黄疸并进行过手术;他也可能得过胰头癌,但我无法找到精确的医疗诊断报告。

两名缅甸被调查者小时候记得两个被毒蛇咬死的人,现在他们每个人身上的胎记都和蛇咬伤部位的治疗切口相吻合。另一名缅甸被调查者也声称,当还是个孩子时,她记得曾是一名被蛇咬伤脚部而死的儿童。在这个案例中,她前世的叔叔用一根燃烧的方头雪茄放在被咬的地方——这是缅甸一些地方治疗蛇咬的偏方;这名被调查者的胎记是圆形,且位于脚部,正是孩子的叔叔放过方头雪茄的位置。

 

7.先天性缺陷的三个案例

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图八展示的是一名土耳其男孩头部右侧缩小了的畸形耳朵(单侧小耳畸形)。并且他的右侧脸也没有发育完全(半侧面部发育不良)。他说他记得一名男性的一生,该男性被霰弹猎枪近距离射击,送往医院6天后死亡,死因是颅骨右侧被射穿而导致的脑损伤。(我得到了一份医院记录)

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图九展示了一名印度儿童的一只手,几乎是先天性的缺少手指(单侧短指),他回忆起前世是另一名儿童时,曾将自己的右手伸入了饲料切碎机,并因此失去了手指。大多数情况下的短指仅涉及一个中间指骨缩短。但在本案例中,连指骨也没有,所谓的手指只是一点残存的指根。单侧短指十分罕见,迄今未见任何报道;但一名同事(整形外科医生)曾向我展示过一例照片,来自该医生照管的患者。

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图十展示了一名缅甸女孩右侧小腿的先天性缺失(单侧半肢畸形)。她说她记得前世是一名曾被火车碾过的女孩。目击者称火车先轧断了她的右腿,然后才碾过了躯干。下半肢畸形是极其罕见的情况,弗朗兹和拉伊丽(Frantz ,O’Rahilly,1961)发现在他们调查的300个先天性骨骼缺陷案例中仅占12例(4.0%)。

 

8.

由于大多数(并不是所有)案例中的人都相信轮回转世,因此我们应该能想象得到,这些案例中的被调查者会将这些情况解释为与转世信仰一致的、活生生的例子,而且他们通常也确实会这样做。但是,对科学家们而言,必须思考有没有其他可能的解释。

对这些案例最常见的解释,就是将儿童的胎记或先天性缺陷归因于偶然性;如此一来,父母亲宣告儿童说了什么及有何异常行为,都变成了虚构——意图用现有文化中的轮回转世信仰来解释胎记(或先天性缺陷)。

然而,对这种解释有些重要的反驳意见。首先,父母们(以及和案例相关的其他成年人)没有必要去编造或讲述某人的前世生平细节以便解释孩子身上的缺陷。由于他们大多数相信轮回转世,因此他们几乎总是乐意将这些缺陷归因于前世发生的某些事件,但不会刻意去搜寻细节上方方面面都吻合的前世是谁。

其次,这些案例中的亡者在社会地位或美德懿行方面参差不齐。他们中少数人可称之为英雄楷模,或具有一些令人钦羡的品质,但绝大多数过着贫穷的生活或根本不值得效仿,很少有父母愿意将这种身份强加到自己孩子头上。

第三,虽然大多数案例中两个相关的家庭相互熟知(甚或有亲属关系),但我很确信至少13个案例中(专门为此仔细审查了210个案例),两个相关家庭在案例被调查之前都不曾听说过彼此。这些案例中的被调查家庭并没有任何信息来建立一个后来得到证实、并和现实高度匹配的、虚构的前世。另外12个案例中,儿童的父母曾听说过与案例有关人员的死讯,但对其伤口状况并不知情。由于篇幅所限,我不得不请求读者接受我对上述25个案例在这方面的评定。但在即将出版的书中,我会列出这些案例,以便读者找到相关的细节报告,阅读后可自行判断此重要问题。

第四,我认为我已经做了相关展示,对于案例中被调查者两个或多个胎记与死者伤口位置一致性的问题上,偶然性是一个不大可能的解释。

有些人不认可用偶然性加虚构来解释这一现象,他们认为可能有其他解释,包括超自然的过程,但他们还不会承认存在来世生命。他们的假设之一认为胎记或先天性缺陷是偶然出现的,然而当事人通过心灵感应了解到有位死者的伤病与其相似,进而认同自己就是该死者。然而,这些案例中的被调查儿童,从来没有表现出足够强大的超自然力量,以解释他们在事件中表现出来的前世回忆,除非这是他们的似真记忆(seeming memory,译者注:似真记忆指虽然有关于某事的记忆,但不一定是真实的)。

另一种解释在探索儿童先天缺陷的成因时也不太认可“偶然性”,而是将其归因于母亲方面的“母感印象”。基于这种理念,一位孕妇得知亡者的伤情后,会影响到孕育中的胚胎和胎儿,因此使其相应部位长得类似于亡者的伤口。“母感印象”这个理念流行于上个世纪直至本世纪的前十年,但现在已声名狼藉。自从1890年(Dabney,1890)以来,直至近期我写了一篇综述之外(Stevenson,1992),一直都没有此类案例的刊登,并且现今也很少有案例报道(Williams and Pembroke,1988)。

尽管如此,一些已发表的案例(新旧都有)显示,孕妇意识所受的不同寻常的刺激,和日后所生孩子身上特别的胎记或先天缺陷,有引人注目的一致性。同时,分析了113个案例报道后,我发现有80个案例的刺激因素出现在妊娠前三个月(Stevenson,1992)。众所周知,妊娠前三个月的胚胎或胎儿对公认的致畸剂最为敏感,例如萨利多胺(Nowack,1965)和风疹病毒(Hill,Doll,Galloway and Hughes,1958)。

但对此处的案例,“母感印象”理论遇到的困难与前述常见解释(即主张“偶然所致”的观点)一样巨大。首先,上文提及的25个案例中,尽管被调查者的母亲有可能听说过相关亡者的死讯,但她们对亡者的伤口并不知情。第二,这种解释假定母亲不仅能以思维改变尚未出生孩子的身体,同时还会在孩子出生后继续施加影响,让儿童做出相关陈述,并展现出特定行为(若无影响将不会如此)。但大部分当事人的父母,在接受调查时看不出有这样做的动机。

我的目的,不是要将这些案例的解释强加于读者身上;并且,也没有期望读者通过阅读案例的简短摘要,得出哪怕很初步的结论。相反,我希望激发读者自身的兴趣,去认真考察笔者新作中的众多详细案例报告(斯蒂文森,即将出版)。“细节中才有真相和真理!”(Stendhal,1926)。

 

9.致谢

衷心感谢安东尼娅·米尔斯博士和艾米丽·瓦特·库克博士对本文初稿的重要指正,非常感谢伯恩斯坦兄弟心理学与健康基金会对本研究的支持。

 

10. 参考文献

Cockayne, E, A. (1933). Inherited abnormalities of the skin. London: Oxford University Press.

Cook, E. W., Pasricha, S, Samararatne, G, Win Maung, & Stevenson, I. (1983). Review and analysis of “unsolved” cases of the reincarnation type: II. Comparison of features of solved and unsolved cases, Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 77, 1 15-135.

Dabney, W. C. (1890). Maternal impressions. In J. M. Keating (Ed.), Cyclopaedia of the diseases of children, Vol. 1 , (pp. 191-216). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.

Denaro, S. J. ( 1944). The inheritance of nevi. Journal of Heredity, 35, 2 1 5- 1 8.

Fatteh, A. (1976). Medicolegal investigation of gunshot wounds. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.

Frantz, C. H., & O’Rahilly, R.(1961). Congenital skeletal limb deficiencies. Journal of Bone and Joins Surgery: 43-A, 1202-24.

Gordon, I., & Shapiro, H. A. (1982). Forensic medicine: A guide to principles. (2nd ed.) London: Churchill Livingstone.

Hill, A, B,, Doll, R,, Galloway, T. M., & Hughes, J.P.W. (1958). Virus diseases in pregnancy and congenital defects.  British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine, 12, 1-7.

Maruri, C. A. (1961). La herencia en dermarologia. (2nd ed.) Santander: Aldus, S.A. Artes Graficas.

Mills, A. (1989). A replication study: Three cases of children in northern India who are said to remember a previous life. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 3, 133-184.

Nelson, K., & Holmes, L. B. (1989). Malformations due to presumed spontaneous mutations in newborn infants. New England Journal of Medicine, 320, 19-23.

Nowack, E, (1965). Die sensible Phase bei der Thalidomid-Embryopathie. Humangenetik, I, 516-36.

Pack, G. T., & Davis, J. (1956). Moles. New York Stare Journal of Medicine, 56, 3498-3506.

Pack, G. T., Lenson, N. & Gerber, D. M. (1952). Regional distribution of moles and melanomas.  AMA Archives of Surgery. 65, 862-70.

Smith, D. W. (1982). Recognizable patterns of human malformation. (3rd ed.) Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.

Spalteholz. W (1943). Hand atlas of human anatomy. Translated by L. E Barker. 7th English ed. Philadelphia: J,B. Lippincott.

Stendhal (1926). Lucien Leuwen. Paris: Librairie Ancienne Honor6 Champion, 4, 169.

Stevenson, I. (1975). Cases of the reincarnation type. I. Ten cases in India. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

Stevenson, I. (1983). American children who claim to remember previous lives.  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 17 1, 742-748.

Stevenson, I. (1987). Children who remember previous lives. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

Stevenson, I. ( 1990). Phobias in children who claim to remember previous lives.  Journal of Scientific Exploration, 4, 243-254.

Stevenson, I. (1992). A new look at maternal impressions: An analysis of 50 published cases and reports of two recent examples. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 6, 353-373.

Stevenson, I. Birthmarks and birth defects: A contribution to their etiology.

Williams, H. C., & Pembroke, A. C. (1988). Naevus of Jamaica. Lancer, 11, 915.

Wilson, J. G. (1973). Environment and birth defects. New York: Academic Press.

 

11. 感知科学研究部的研究人员关于转世的文章,所有相关文章可在弗吉尼亚大学感知科学研究部下载。

The Evidence for Survival from Claimed Memories of Former Incarnations by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 54:51-71 and 95-117, 1960). Dr. Stevenson’s early essay about cases suggestive of reincarnation and several interpretations of them.

Some Questions Related to Cases of the Reincarnation Type by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 68:395-416, 1974). A discussion of some frequently asked questions about reincarnation.

A Preliminary Report of a New Case of Responsive Xenoglossy: The Case of Gretchen by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 70:65-77, 1976). A report of a case in which the subject, under hypnosis, spoke and conversed in German, a language that she seems not to have learned normally.

The Explanatory Value of the Idea of Reincarnation by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 164:305-326, 1977). A consideration of the ways in which the concept of reincarnation might supplement those of heredity and environment in explaining some poorly understood aspects of human behavior and development.

The Southeast Asian Interpretation of Gender Dysphoria: An Illustrative Case Report by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 165:201-208, 1977). Suggesting that gender identity confusion may derive from influences of a previous life as a member of the opposite sex, Dr. Stevenson reports the case of a girl who claims to remember a previous life as a man.

A Preliminary Report on an Unusual Case of the Reincarnation Type with Xenoglossy by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of the American Society of Psychical Research 74: 331-348, 1980). A report of a case of a woman who periodically assumes a second personality, speaking only a language she does not know in her normal state. She has also given verified details about another life she claims to have lived.

American Children Who Claim to Remember Previous Lives by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 171:742-748, 1983). Report of an analysis of 79 cases of American children who claim to remember a previous life.

A Review and Analysis of “Unsolved” Cases of the Reincarnation Type: I. Introduction and Illustrative Case Reports by Dr. Ian Stevenson, Dr. Emily Williams Cook et al. (Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 77:45-62, 1983). Brief reports of 7 cases of the reincarnation type in which no deceased person corresponding to the child subject’s statements has been found.

A Review and Analysis of “Unsolved” Cases of the Reincarnation Type: II. Comparison of Features of Solved and Unsolved Cases by Dr. Ian Stevenson, Dr. Emily Williams Cook et al. (Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 77:115-135, 1983). Report of an analysis and comparison of 856 solved and unsolved reincarnation cases with regard to 9 important features.

The Belief in Reincarnation Among the Igbo of Nigeria by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Asian and African Studies XX:13-30, 1985.) A summary of the belief in reincarnation among the Igbo with a description of the repeater children, called ogbanjes by the Igbo people.

Characteristics of Cases of the Reincarnation Type Among the Igbo of Nigeria by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Asian and African Studies XXI:204-216, 1986). A description of the principle features found in 57 cases of the reincarnation type occurring among the Igbo people. Several tables compare the incidence of the main features of the cases in nine or ten different cultures.

Indian Cases of the Reincarnation Type Two Generations Apart by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. Satwant Pasricha. (Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 54(809):239-246, 1987). Cases of the reincarnation type from the early years of this century show features closely resembling those of cases whose subjects were born after 1965.

Deception and Self-Deception in Cases of the Reincarnation Type: Seven Illustrative Cases in Asia by Dr. Ian Stevenson, Dr. Satwant Pasricha and Godwin Samararatne. (Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 82:1-31, 1988). Detailed reports of 7 cases of the reincarnation type in Asia that seemed to be authentic at first but, on investigation, proved to be best interpreted as instances of deception or self-deception.

Two Correlates of Violent Death in Cases of the Reincarnation Type by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. N. K. Chadha. (Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 55(811):71-79, 1988). In the cases of children remembering previous lives that ended violently the interval between death of the deceased person whose life is remembered and the subject’s birth is shorter, on average, than in cases having a natural death in the previous life. Also, children remembering violent deaths tend to speak about the previous life at an earlier age than do children who remember lives that ended naturally.

Three New Cases of the Reincarnation Type in Sri Lanka with Written Records Made before Verification by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 176:741, 1988). Short summaries of three recent cases of the valuable type in which the child’s statements were recorded in writing before they were verified.

Three New Cases of the Reincarnation Type in Sri Lanka with Written Records Made before Verification by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Godwin Samararatne. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 2:217-238, 1988). A longer version of 15a, including more detail about the 3 cases reported.

Phobias in Children Who Claim to Remember Previous Lives by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 4:243-254, 1990). A discussion of the phobias that occur among many children who seem to remember a previous life, and some possible explanations for these phobias.

Birthmarks and Birth Defects Corresponding to Wounds on Deceased Persons by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 7:403-410, 1993). A short summary of research on the cases of children who claim to remember previous lives and who have birthmarks or birth defects that correspond to wounds in the claimed previous life.

Does the Socio-Psychological Hypothesis Explain Cases of the Reincarnation Type? by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. Sybo Schouten. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorder. 186:504-506, 1998). Cases of the reincarnation type (in India and Sri Lanka) in which a written record of the subject’s statements was made only after the families concerned had met did not have more statements and more correct ones than cases in which a written record was made before the statements were verified.

Do Cases of the Reincarnation Type Show Similar Features Over Many Years? A Study of Turkish Cases a Generation Apart by Dr. Jürgen Keil and Dr. Ian Stevenson. ( Journal of Scientific Exploration 13(2):189-198, 1999). In Turkey the features of 45 cases studied by one investigator were compared with the features of 45 other cases studied nearly a generation later by another investigator. Overall, the two groups of cases showed closely similar features. The cases appear to be a natural phenomenon occurring over many years.

The Phenomenon of Claimed Memories of Previous Lives: Possible Interpretations and Importance by Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Medical Hypotheses 54(4):652-659, 2000). The hypothesis of previous lives can contribute to the further understanding of several conditions, disorders, or abnormalities (such as phobias observed in early infancy, gender identity disorder, and behavioral and physical differences in one-egg [monozygotic] twins) that are not adequately explained by genetic and/or environmental influences.

The Stability of Assessments of Paranormal Connections in Reincarnation-Type Cases by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. Jürgen Keil. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 14 (3): 365-382, 2000). Fifteen cases of children who claimed to remember a previous life were investigated twice and independently with an average interval of 22 years between the investigations. The reports were evaluated for evidence of a paranormal process. With the lapse of time informants lost some details; but with one possible exception there was no evidence of increased claims of paranormality in the later investigations.

An Unusual Birthmark Case Thought to be Linked to a Person Who Had Previously Died by Dr. Jürgen Keil and Dr. Jim B. Tucker. (Psychological Reports 87:1067-1074, 2000). A report of a case of a Burmese subject who was born with birthmarks and birth defects that were thought to be linked to the death of his mother’s first husband in a parachute accident.

A Scale to Measure the Strength of Children’s Claims of Previous Lives: Methodology and Initial Findings by Dr. Jim B. Tucker. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 14(4):571-581, 2000). 799 cases of children who claim to remember a previous life were analyzed using a scale that measured the strength of the claims. The analysis showed that in the stronger cases, the children tended to start talking about the previous life at an earlier age; they demonstrated more emotion in recalling the past life; and they showed greater facial resemblance to the deceased individual that they were said to have been.

Unusual Play in Young Children Who Claim to Remember Previous Lives by Dr. Ian Stevenson ( Journal of Scientific Exploration 14(4):557-570, 2000). Children who, when they learn to speak express memories of previous lives, frequently engage in play that is unusual and has no model or other obvious stimulus in their family. The play seems to repeat the vocation or an avocation of the person whose life the child seems to remember. Sometimes the play reenacts the cause of death, such as drowning, of that person.

Ropelike Birthmarks on Children Who Claim to Remember Past Lives by Dr. Ian Stevenson (Psychological Reports 89:142-144, 2001). Description of birthmarks having the pattern of strands of a rope in a second known case includes some verification of the correspondence between the birthmarks and injuries from ropes on an identified deceased person.

Can Cultural Beliefs Cause a Gender Identity Disorder? by Dr. Jim B. Tucker and Dr. Jürgen Keil. (Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality 13(2):21-30, 2001). Report of a child in Thailand who was born with a birthmark that matched a mark made on the body of his deceased grandmother. As he got older, he claimed to be his grandmother reborn, and he demonstrated cross-gender behavior.

The Similarity of Features of Reincarnation Type Cases over Many Years: A Third Study by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. Erlendur Haraldsson. ( Journal of Scientific Exploration 17(2):283-289, 2003). The principal features of two series of cases suggestive of reincarnation in Lebanon were compared. The series were investigated about a generation apart by two different investigators. In three important features the two series were closely similar; in other features they were not similar, probably because of differences in the thoroughness of investigation in the two series.

Cases of the Reincarnation Type with Memories from the Intermission Between Lives by Poonam Sharma and Dr. Jim B. Tucker. ( Journal of Near-Death Studies 23(2):101-118, 2005). A minority of children who claim to remember previous lives also claim to remember events between lives. This analysis of statements from 35 Burmese subjects reveals patterns in the memories that they described. A comparison of these reports to reports of near-death experiences indicates significant areas of overlap.

Children Who Claim to Remember Previous Lives: Cases with Written Records Made before the Previous Personality Was Identified by Dr. Jürgen Keil and Dr. Jim B. Tucker. ( Journal of Scientific Exploration 19(1): pp. 91-101, 2005). A case is presented in which a written record, made before the deceased individual was identified, documented that the numerous statements made by a Turkish boy about a previous life were accurate for the life of a man who lived 500 miles away and died 50 years before the boy was born. Other similar cases are reviewed.

Children of Myanmar Who Behave like Japanese Soldiers: A Possible Third Element in Personality by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. Jürgen Keil. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 19(2): pp. 171-183, 2005). Among 750 children of Myanmar who claimed to remember a previous life 24 spoke about having been Japanese soldiers killed, presumably during World War II. None gave verifiable information, but they all showed unusual behavior, such as insensitivity to pain, dislike of hot weather and, distaste for spicy food, which are typical of Japanese soldiers, but not of Burmese persons. Genetic factors cannot explain these cases; neither can encouragement of such behavior by the children’s  parents. Reincarnation is suggested as a third component of human personality illustrated by these cases.

Some Bodily Malformations Attributed to Previous Lives by Dr. Satwant K. Pasricha, Dr. Jürgen Keil, Dr. Jim B. Tucker, and Dr. Ian Stevenson. ( Journal of Scientific Exploration 19(3):359-383, 2005). This two part article examines cases in which children were born with abnormalities that were attributed to wounds from a previous life. Part I presents three cases in which evidence indicated a close correspondence between a child’s birthmark and a wound on a particular deceased person. Part II describes four cases of birth defects that were attributed to previous lives and looks at the evidence supporting that attribution. Photographs of the malformations are included.

Children who claim to remember previous lives: Past, present, and future research by Dr. Jim B. Tucker. (Journal of Scientific Exploration, 21(3): pp. 543-552, 2007). The research with Cases of the Reincarnation Type is reviewed, beginning with Ian Stevenson’s initial paper on the phenomenon in 1961. Current projects and planned future projects are also discussed.

Ian Stevenson and cases of the reincarnation type by Dr. Jim B. Tucker (Journal of Scientific Exploration, 22 (1); 36-43, 2008).

Children’s reports of past-life memories: A review by Dr. Jim B. Tucker, (EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing, 4(4):244-248, 2008).

Review by Dr. Jim B. Tucker of “Can the Mind Survive beyond Death? In Pursuit of Scientific Evidence” by Satwant K. Pasricha. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 24:133-137, 2010).

Response to “How To Improve the Study and Documentation of Cases of the Reincarnation Type? A Reappraisal of the Case of Kemal Atasoy” written by Vitor Moura Visoni. The response is by Dr. Jürgen Keil and Dr. Jim B. Tucker. (Journal of Scientific Exploration 24:295-296, 2010).

Experimental Birthmarks: New Cases of an Asian Practice by Dr. Jim B. Tucker and Dr. Jürgen Keil. (Journal of Scientific)

 

文章来源:

http://www.near-death.com/experiences/reincarnation01.html

 

智悲翻译中心

翻译:扎西尼措

一校:圆见、江永拉姆

二校:圆阳

终审:阿游

 

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