宁体:至深心髓

1013-3

吉美林巴大师

英译:秋扬•创巴仁波切

中译:张志佛

摘自《Mudra》

译者志:此文乃无畏金洲智慧光尊者(即吉美林巴大师,龙钦心髓第二代传承祖师)所造。于中多方阐明修习阿底瑜珈时,行人诸多幽隐禅病及对治之道,稀有难得,罕能值遇。今承上师三宝加持,译者偶得于纽约某旧书肆;奇文妙宝,岂敢自珍,乃不吝鄙陋,恭译是文,期供养上师三宝与一切如父如母有情。

此文乃是弃世缘,修习宁体之行人,摄伏诸般惑乱而作狮子吼。

马哈阿底(大圆满)远离概念,超越取舍,乃诸波罗密之精髓,斯亦即唯觉无缘,如如不动之不修位也。

既明此已,乃以离戏之至忱,于马哈阿底申无尽敬礼。

此乃阿底之精要,莲师教敕心髓,诸空行母之命力,九乘之巅说如是。

唯由心船上师授,非仅文字语言表;然而最利致力于,最极教敕之修士,

以此故我着是文。此法非缘诸教理,亦非学说中出生,法界宝藏中取出。

……

行人首当寻求与之有善业缘,具成就之心印传承持明上师,并对上师净信,庶几方可传承上师之证悟。马哈阿底乃最胜离戏,当体即是,非可譬喻,毋能障蔽,超离一切边执,亦无可改变形色,当下明晰澄澈。若与之相合,禅修之欲念将自消融,因而解脱禅修与教理学说之束缚,实信乃于焉生起,能思之我亦不复有。如是不以善念生诸益,亦不以恶念生诸害,无记念亦毋得为惑,而以波罗密多无尽大界相合,道中进诣之兆将自生起。诸般惑乱、谬误等犹疑亦不复有。

此教敕虽为诸乘之王,然行人概分上等受法者,次等受法者,与不堪受法者。于中,上等受法者甚为稀有;然而师资或难以遇合,如是竟无有所得,而于马哈阿底之实性生出谬解。次等受法者始于研习教理而渐生解悟。今日颇有学人以之为实修;彼等之禅修或亦澄清无念,松坦安适,然此非短暂之乐受,却误认此即正定,无人能过之,并谓已得证悟而生自满。是故,若无胜师指正,彼等所有仅是名言觉受。如马哈阿底之经续所云:“学理(解悟)如衣上补绽——终将分离。”

学人每每拣择善与恶念,此无异分离乳、水。诸人但能接受此生之苦受,却无能以乐受为道。纵是大言已达最大极证悟者,亦缠缚于世间八法,而为天魔引诱,此意味彼实不了六识之自解脱。如是人等视声誉为妙善之物,此不无异颠倒黑白,唱言乌鸦是白色的。于不念世间名誉,专注修行之行者,纵有较善境界,亦不可自满,当于每日四时修上师相应法,亦祈求上师加持而得与师心相合,豁开正眼。若已生此觉受者,慎勿轻忽;当以此无比坚忍,奉献今生,修持于是,则于空性之体验将更趋寂静,并将历验更胜之明晰鉴慧。复次,行者将渐体悟散乱之过患,而开启抉择智。亦有人等以念与无念为禅修之道;然而于中了知诸般起现者,概系紧缚之我执也,此应铭记于心。

行人于当析辨诸般历验之微细碍难,心存警惕,以其甚危也;盖于时或过速标志诸念为法身。应以当下无迁变、无错谬之智以为对治。若得解脱教理臆想之束缚,行人将于行持中逐渐长养妙观透析之觉性。若尔析辨座上座下之种种体验者,将蹈入歧途,肇致诸多错谬。若毋能明了己过,行人永不得证超越言思,当下自显不断之鉴慧;彼之所有,无非是止于言思之断灭空见,此实为诸劣乘之征也。

若视空性如幻,仅是清晰之“臆想”与“空无”之相合,亦说为谬误,此乃诸次续之觉受也;彼或肇因于不当修习梭巴哇咒。妄念既经调伏已,若举心持“明”,视本心一片空荡者,亦是错谬。真实之鉴慧,乃是与念及寂静具起觉智。

据马哈阿底之教敕,禅修乃明了心中诸般起现,而乃安住于当下。若于座下能令此相续不断,谓之“座下觉受”。欲“专注”于空性,及于座下以识心造作观诸境如幻者,皆说为过谬。所谓“本来”,乃不为念起所影响者。是故监守“动”心,意欲禁制之,及压制诸念之断灭行,皆属谬误。

颇有人等以“当下”为心中瞬起之诸念。“当下”实乃本来觉智,具如前述。若于修与无修再无拣择,无修位乃于彼心中出生,于时行人不再试图改变或延长禅境,而有离诸疑之遍喜,其大异于感官之乐受与世俗享乐。所言“明”者,乃谓离诸沈闇。此“明”无碍遍照与净觉无别。若以之为晓了内心诸念与外境形色者,皆属错谬。若离诸想念,则行人全然浸于无念大空。此“无念”者,非谓昏昧不觉或断绝六根,实乃不为心念所动。

乐、明、无念等禅修三兆,可于修中自然出生,若欲造作生起,则仍不脱轮回之界。

于空性说有四种谬见。若未能现观“当下”之大界,唯想象空性唯一片虚无者,是为错谬。若不了“当下”无有道、果,而欲离此求觅法身、佛性者,说为过谬。若欲对治诸念,而不了其性空可如蛇解自结者,亦是谬误。若持断灭见,以为唯此“空无”,于皆非有,无因无果、修与修者,毋能亲证空性实乃超越言思者,亦说为过谬。于彼等具少许体悟者,当明了修习空性之诸般险隘,并精研于斯。说理何难,谈空甚易,然行人或仍未能应对诸境。马哈阿底续云:“暂生之物如云雾,终将消散定无疑。”故修士若未审慎研习上述之险隘者,终不能戮力制心,严格闭关,乃至观想、诵咒与修持瑜伽中获致任何法益。如经云:“不了独居之真义,纵离人烟五百里,蛇居荒谷经年修,所得无非大我慢。”

修士若能以诸般起现为道,其身即是关房,更无需攒机禅修之年月。于悚然妄念生起之际,亦无所惊恐;其觉性无散如老人观儿戏般。具如马哈阿底经续中云:“圆满之证悟如无迁变之大空。”

马哈阿底之修士虽外现常行,然其觉性完全消融于当下;以亲见显现万有尽是上师坛城故,再于无需于经卷(名言);于修道次第亦无有冀虑,任运瞬显一切行持,利益所有众生。一如瓶阙裂时,瓶中之气与周遭相合般;当修士舍报,离此色身之际,其觉性亦将与法身合一,等无有异。

文章来源:http://www.360doc.com/content/11/0619/09/3414836_127959533.shtml

 

《宁提:至深心髓》的英文原版

A teaching on the awakened state by the great Dzogchen teacher Jigme Lingpa (1730-1798)

Translated by Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche

 

Maha ati

 

THIS IS THE LION’S ROAR which subdues the rampant confusions and misunderstandings of those meditators who have abandoned materialistic attachments to meditate on the Innermost Essence.

 

The maha ati [Tib.: dzogchen], which is beyond conceptions and transcends both grasping and letting go, is the essence of transcendental insight. This is the unchanging state of non meditation in which there is awareness but no clinging. Understanding this, I pay ceaseless homage to the maha ati with great simplicity.

 

Here is the essence of the maha ati tantra,

The innermost heart of Padmakara’s teachings,

The life-force of the dakinis.

This is the ultimate teaching of all the nine vehicles.

It can be transmitted only by a guru of the thought lineage

And not by words alone.

Nevertheless I have written this

For the benefit of great meditators

Who are dedicated to the highest teaching.

This teaching was taken from the treasury of dharmadhatu

And is not created out of attachment

To theories and philosophical abstractions.

 

First the pupil must find an accomplished guru with whom he has a good karmic link. The teacher must be a holder of the thought lineage transmission. The pupil must have single minded devotion and faith, which makes possible the transmission of the teacher’s understanding.

 

The maha ati is of the greatest simplicity. It is what is. It cannot be shown by analogy; nothing can obstruct it. It is without limitation and transcends all extremes. It is clear-cut nowness, which can never change its shape or colour. When you become one with this state, the desire to meditate itself dissolves; you are freed from the chain of meditation and philosophy, and conviction is born within you. The thinker has deserted. There is no longer any benefit to be gained from “good” thoughts and no harm is to be suffered from “bad” thoughts. Neutral thoughts can no longer deceive. You become one with transcendental insight and boundless space. Then you will find signs of progress on the path. There is no longer any question of rampant confusions and misunderstandings.

 

Although this teaching is the king of the yanas [vehicles], meditators are divided into those who are highly receptive to it, those who are less receptive and those who are quite unreceptive. The most highly receptive pupils are hard to find, and it sometimes happens that teacher and pupil are unable to find a true meeting point. In such a case nothing is gained and misconceptions may arise concerning the nature of maha ati.

 

Those who are less receptive begin by studying the theory and gradually develop the feeling and true understanding. Nowadays many people regard the theory as being the meditation. Their meditation may be clear and devoid of thoughts and it may be relaxing and enjoyable, but this is merely the temporary experiencing of bliss. They think this is meditation and that no one knows any better than them. They think, “I have attained this understanding:’ and they are proud of themselves. Then, if there is no competent teacher, their experience is only theoretical. As it is said in the scriptures of maha ati: “Theory is like a patch on a coat ..one day it will come apart.”

 

People often try to discriminate between “good” thoughts and “bad” thoughts, like trying to separate milk from water. It is easy enough to accept the negative experiences in life but much harder to see the positive experiences as part of the path. Even those who claim to have reached the highest stage of realization are completely involved with worldly concerns and fame. They are attracted by Devaputra [personification of the force which causes attraction to sense objects]. This means they have not realized the self-liberation of the six senses. Such people regard fame as extraordinary and miraculous. This is like claiming that a raven is white. But those who are completely dedicated to the practice of dharma without being concerned about worldly fame and glory should not become too self-satisfied on account of their higher developments of meditation. They must practice the Guru Yoga throughout the four periods of the day in order to receive the blessings of the guru and to merge their minds with his and open the eye of insight.

 

Once this experience is attained it should not be disregarded. The yogi should thenceforth dedicate himself to this practice with unremitting perseverance. Subsequently his experience of the void will become more peaceful, or he will experience greater clarity and insight. Or again, he may begin to realize the shortcomings of discursive thoughts and thereby develop discriminating wisdom. Some individuals will be able to use both thoughts and the absence of thoughts as meditation, but it should be borne in mind that that which notes what is happening is the tight grip of ego.

 

Look out for the subtle hindrance of trying to analyze experiences. This is a great danger. It is too early to label all thoughts as dharmakaya [the body of ultimate truth]. The remedy is the wisdom of nowness, changeless and unfailing. Once freed from the bondage of philosophical speculation, the meditator develops penetrating awareness in his practice. If he analyzes his meditation and post-meditation experiences, he will be led astray and make many mistakes. If he fails to understand his shortcomings, he will never gain the free-flowing insight of nowness, beyond all concepts. He will have only a conceptual and nihilistic view of the void, which is characteristic of the lesser yanas.

 

It is also a mistake to regard the void as a mirage, as though it was merely a combination of vivid perceptions and nothingness. This is the experience of the lower mantras, which might be induced by practice of the Svabhava mantra. It is likewise a mistake, when discursive thoughts are pacified, to overlook the clarity and regard the mind as merely blank. The experience of true insight is the simultaneous awareness of both stillness and active thoughts. According to the maha ati teaching, meditation consists of seeing whatever arises in the mind and simply remaining in the state of nowness. Continuing in this state after meditation is known as “the post-meditation experience.”

 

It is a mistake to try to concentrate on emptiness and, after meditation, intellectually to regard everything as a mirage. Primordial insight is the state which is not influenced by the undergrowth of thoughts. It is a mistake to be on guard against the wandering mind or to try and imprison the mind in the ascetic practice of suppressing thoughts.

 

Some people may misunderstand the term “nowness” and take it to refer to whatever thoughts happen to be in their mind at the moment. Nowness should be understood as being the primeval insight already described.

 

The state of non meditation is born in the heart when one no longer discriminates between meditation and non-meditation and one is no longer tempted to change or prolong the state of meditation. There is all-pervading joy, free from all doubts. This is different from the enjoyment of sensual pleasures or from mere happiness.

 

When we speak of “clarity” we are referring to that state which is free from sloth and dullness. This clarity, inseparable from pure energy, shines forth unobstructed. It is a mistake to equate clarity with awareness of thoughts and the colors and shapes of external phenomena.

 

When thoughts are absent the meditator is completely immersed in the space of non-thought. The “absence of thoughts” does not mean unconsciousness or sleep or withdrawal from the senses, but simply being unmoved by conflict. The three signs of meditation clarity, joy and absence of thoughts may occur naturally when a person meditates, but if an effort is made to create them the meditator still remains in the circle of samsara.

 

There are four mistaken views of the void. It is a mistake to imagine that the void is merely empty without seeing the wild space of nowness. It is a mistake to seek the buddha nature in external sources, without realizing that nowness knows no path or goal. It is a mistake to try to introduce some remedy for thoughts without realizing that thoughts are by nature void and that one can free oneself like a snake unwinding. It is also a mistake to hold a nihilistic view that there is nothing but the void, no cause and effect of karma and no meditator nor meditation, failing to experience the void which is beyond conceptions.

 

Those who have had glimpses of realization must know these dangers and study them thoroughly. It is easy to theorize and talk eloquently about the void, but the meditator may still be unable to deal with certain situations. In a maha ati text it is said:

 

“Temporary realization is like a mist which will surely disappear” Meditators who have not studied these dangers will never derive any benefit from being in strict retreat or forcibly restraining the mind, nor from visualizing, reciting mantras or practicing Hathayoga. As is said in the Phagpa Dudpa Sutra,

 

“A Bodhisattva who does not know the real meaning of solitude,

Even if he meditates for many years in a remote valley full of

poisonous snakes,

Five hundred miles from the nearest habitation,

Would develop overwhelming pride.”

 

If the meditator is able to use whatever occurs in his life as the path, his body becomes a retreat hut. He does not need to add up the number of years he has been meditating and does not panic when “shocking” thoughts arise. His awareness remains unbroken like that of an old man watching a child at play. As is said in a maha ati text: “Complete realization is like unchanging space.”

 

The yogi of maha ati may look like an ordinary person but his awareness is completely absorbed in nowness. He has no need of books because he sees apparent phenomena and the whole of existence as the mandala of the guru. For him there is no speculation about the stages on the path. His actions are spontaneous and therefore benefit all sentient beings. When he leaves the physical body his consciousness becomes one with the dharmakaya, just as the air in a vase merges with the surrounding space when the vase is broken.

From 《Mudra》, by Chogyam Trungpa