饮食可以快速并可重复地改变人类肠道微生物

(美)Lawrence A. David,Corinne F. Maurice,Rachel N. Carmody,David B. Gootenberg,Julie E. Button,Benjamin E. Wolfe,Alisha V. Ling,A. Sloan Devlin,Yug Varma,Michael A. Fischbach,Sudha B. Biddinger,Rachel J. Dutton,Peter J. Turnbaugh

【编者导读】如果你打算由素食转变为肉食,反之亦然,您的肠道微生物组成也会发生重大的改变。肉食者与纯素食者的肠道微生物结构完全不同,而肠道微生物与多种疾病基因密切相关。在线发表于2013年12月11日的《自然》(Nature)杂志上的一项研究,哈佛大学与杜克大学的研究者们发现短期内的饮食模式转变可以改变肠道微生物菌落的数量、结构,甚至微生物的行为方式。而长期的饮食结构会影响人类肠道上万亿微生物的结构与活性,对健康的影响显而易见。

【编注】每个人的肠道中居住着上万亿的微生物,它们所编码的基因总量大约是人类编码基因数目的50~100倍。这相当于在人体内存在被称为“人类的第二基因组”的另一个基因组——微生物组,通过其表达调控人体的消化、免疫及体重,从而影响人体的健康。

长期的饮食结构会影响人类肠道上万亿微生物的结构与活性,但是人类肠道微生物对短期膳食结构改变如何做出快速和可重复性的反应尚不明确。

本研究结果显示:短期纯动物性或者纯植物性饮食的摄入会改变微生物群落结构,而掩饰了微生物基因表达所致的个体差异。动物性食物为主的饮食会增加耐胆汁酸微生物的丰度,例如:理研菌科的Alistipes菌属,革兰氏阴性杆菌的嗜胆菌属(Bilophila)和拟杆菌属(Bacteroides);而降低消化植物多糖的厚壁菌门细菌(Firmicutes)的水平,例如:罗氏菌属(Roseburia),直肠真杆菌(Eubacterium rectale)和布鲁布氏瘤胃球菌(Ruminococcus bromii)。

微生物的活动能反映出食草性哺乳动物与食肉性哺乳动物的差异,表现在碳水化合物与蛋白质发酵间的平衡。短暂生活在肠道中,来自两类饮食的食源性微生物包括:细菌(bacteria)、真菌(fungi),甚至还有病毒(viruses)。最后,在以动物性食物为主的饮食中沃氏嗜胆菌(Bilophila wadsworthia)数量和活性的增加,支持饮食中脂肪、胆汁酸与能够触发炎性肠病的微生物生长之间存在关联性。这些研究结果一致表明:肠道菌群能够对饮食改变做出快速反应,可能适应人类饮食生活方式的多样性。

来源:哈佛大学FAS系统生物学中心,哈佛大学学者协会,哈佛医学院波士顿儿童医院内分泌科,加利福尼亚大学生物工程暨治疗学系、加利福尼亚定量生物科学研究所,杜克大学分子遗传学与微生物学、基因组科学与政策研究所

在线发表于2013年12月11日《Nature》杂志

doi:10.1038/nature12820

翻译:悠悠步行者

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12820.html

Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome

Lawrence A. David, Corinne F. Maurice, Rachel N. Carmody, David B. Gootenberg, Julie E. Button, Benjamin E. Wolfe, Alisha V. Ling, A. Sloan Devlin, Yug Varma, Michael A. Fischbach, Sudha B. Biddinger, Rachel J. Dutton & Peter J. Turnbaugh

Affiliations

FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA

Lawrence A. David, Corinne F. Maurice, Rachel N. Carmody, David B. Gootenberg, Julie E. Button, Benjamin E. Wolfe, Rachel J. Dutton & Peter J. Turnbaugh

Society of Fellows, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA

Lawrence A. David

Division of Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA

Alisha V. Ling & Sudha B. Biddinger

Department of Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences and the California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA

A. Sloan Devlin, Yug Varma & Michael A. Fischbach

Present address: Molecular Genetics & Microbiology and Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA.

Lawrence A. David

Nature (2013) doi:10.1038/nature12820

Received 18 April 2013 Accepted 29 October 2013 Published online 11 December 2013

Long-term dietary intake influences the structure and activity of the trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gut, but it remains unclear how rapidly and reproducibly the human gut microbiome responds to short-term macronutrient change. Here we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophila and Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale and Ruminococcus bromii). Microbial activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous mammals, reflecting trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermentation. Foodborne microbes from both diets transiently colonized the gut, including bacteria, fungi and even viruses. Finally, increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease. In concert, these results demonstrate that the gut microbiome can rapidly respond to altered diet, potentially facilitating the diversity of human dietary lifestyles.