素食者:罹患癌症的低危人群

y20140124-95

(美)Tantamango-Bartley Y,Jaceldo-Siegl K,Fan J,Fraser G

【编者导读】美国洛马林达大学公共卫生学院流行病学与生物统计学系在基督复活安息日会健康研究2中,对近7万进行了饮食方式与所有癌症发病率相关性研究。研究结果发现:在罹患所有癌症风险中,素食与非素食之间具有显著性差异;严格素食能降低罹患全部癌症以及妇科肿瘤的危险性;蛋奶素食对罹患胃肠道肿瘤具有保护作用。

摘要

背景:

在美国,癌症高居死因的第二位。在西方国家,所有癌症中,饮食因素至少能导致30%的癌症。随着人们的饮食不再单一,而是变得多样化的进程中,在确定饮食与罹患癌症风险之间的相关性时,饮食模式可以提供有价值的信息。

方法:

我们对基督复活安息日会健康研究2(the Adventist Health Study-2)的69,120名参与者进行了饮食方式与所有癌症发病率相关性研究。其中,饮食方式分为:非素食(non-vegetarians)、乳素食(lacto)、鱼素食(pesco)、严格素食(vegan)和半素食(semi-vegetarian)。癌症病例是通过匹配的癌症登记来确认。估计风险系数时,以“到达年龄”(”attained age”)为时间变量,采用了Cox比例风险回归分析(Cox proportional hazard regression analysis)。

结果:

本研究中共确诊2,939例癌症。所有癌症风险的多变量危险比(multivariate HR),在素食者与非素食者之间(无论是男性或女性)均具有统计学差异【危险比(HR):0.92,95%可信区间(CI):0.85~0.99】。此外,素食与胃肠道肿瘤之间具有统计学显著相关性(HR:0.76,95%CI:0.63~0.90)。当单独分析某种特定的素食方式时,严格素食对所有癌症均具有统计学显著性保护作用(HR:0.84,95%CI:0.47~0.92)。蛋奶素食(Lacto-ovo-vegetarians)能够降低罹患胃肠道肿瘤的危险性(HR:0.75,95%CI:0.60~0.92)。

结论:

素食似乎具有抗癌的保护作用。影响:对比起其他饮食模式,严格素食者似乎能降低罹患全部癌症以及妇科肿瘤的危险性。蛋奶素食似乎对罹患胃肠道肿瘤具有保护作用。

 

来源:美国洛马林达大学公共卫生学院流行病学与生物统计学系

发表于2013年2月《癌症流行病学、生物标志物和预防》杂志

doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-1060

PMID:23169929

PMCID:PMC3565018

翻译:悠悠步行者

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23169929

 

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Feb;22(2):286-94. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-1060. Epub 2012 Nov 20.

Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population.

Tantamango-Bartley Y, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Fraser G

Source

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Loma Linda University, School of Public Health, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA. ytantamango@hotmail.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Dietary factors account for at least 30% of all cancers in Western countries. As people do not consume individual foods but rather combinations of them, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and cancer risk.

METHODS:

We examined the association between dietary patterns (non-vegetarians, lacto, pesco, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and the overall cancer incidence among 69,120 participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. Cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted to estimate hazard ratios, with “attained age” as the time variable.

RESULTS:

A total of 2,939 incident cancer cases were identified. The multivariate HR of overall cancer risk among vegetarians compared with non-vegetarians was statistically significant [HR, 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-0.99] for both genders combined. Also, a statistically significant association was found between vegetarian diet and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63-0.90). When analyzing the association of specific vegetarian dietary patterns, vegan diets showed statistically significant protection for overall cancer incidence (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.99) in both genders combined and for female-specific cancers (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.47-0.92). Lacto-ovo-vegetarians appeared to be associated with decreased risk of cancers of the gastrointestinal system (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.92).

CONCLUSION:

Vegetarian diets seem to confer protection against cancer. Impact: Vegan diet seems to confer lower risk for overall and female-specific cancer than other dietary patterns. The lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets seem to confer protection from cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.