素食有利于改善情绪

                                                                              ——一项来自随机对照试验的报道:限制肉、鱼、家禽类食物摄入利于情绪的改善

[美] Beenzhold BL和Johnston CS

【编者导读】一般认为素食者由于多不饱和脂肪酸:EPA和DHA的摄入低,而易得抑郁症;而吃鱼可以增加EPA和DHA的摄入,因此情绪会更好。事实真的如此吗?美国研究者将杂食的志愿者随机分配到杂食组、食鱼组和素食组。2星期后惊奇地发现素食组的各项情绪指标显著好转,而其他两组却没有改变。

摘要

背景:与素食者相比较,杂食者所摄入的花生四烯酸(arachidonic acid, AA)更多。研究表明:高花生四烯酸的摄入将加速大脑的变化,从而扰乱情绪。而经常吃鱼的杂食者增加了多不饱和脂肪酸:EPA(Eicosapentaenoic Acid,即二十五碳五烯酸,是鱼油的主要成分)和DHA(docosahexaenoic acid,即二十二碳六烯酸,俗称脑黄金)的摄入;此类多不饱和脂肪酸能够抵抗花生四烯酸对情绪的负性作用。在最新的一项横向研究却表明:尽管杂食者摄入更多的EPA和DHA,但与素食者相比较,杂食者情绪明显糟糕得多。该项课题主要对肉类、鱼类和素食对情绪的影响进行了深入研究。

调查结果

该项研究将39名杂食志愿者随机分配到杂食组、食鱼组和素食组。杂食组(OMN):可以进食肉类、鱼和家禽;食鱼组(FISH)每周吃3~4次鱼,但不进食肉类和家禽类食物;而素食组(VEG)则避免进食肉类、鱼和家禽。2周后,所有参加者均参与完成食物调查问卷、情绪调查问卷、情绪低落、焦虑、压力状态衡量调查问卷。在膳食干预后,素食组减少了EPA、DHA以及AA的摄入,而食鱼组增加了EPA和DHA的摄入。杂食组和食鱼组的情绪指标评分并没有任何改变,但是在素食组中有一些情绪指标评分却明显提高。

结论

在杂食者中,限制肉类、鱼类以及家禽类饮食的摄入可以改进某些区域的短期情绪状态。据我们所知,这是世界上第一次在杂食者中研究限制肉类、鱼以及家畜对情绪状态的影响。

文章来源:美国班尼迪克大学营养学系

发表于2012年2月《英国营养学杂志》

doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-9.

PMID:22333737

翻译:悠悠步行者

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22333737

Nutr J. 2012 Feb 14;11:9. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-9.

 

Restriction of meat, fish, and poultry in omnivores improves mood: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

Beezhold BL, Johnston CS.

Nutrition Department, Benedictine University, 5700 College Road, Lisle, Illinois, USA. bbeezhold@ben.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Omnivorous diets are high in arachidonic acid (AA) compared to vegetarian diets. Research shows that high intakes of AA promote changes in brain that can disturb mood. Omnivores who eat fish regularly increase their intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), fats that oppose the negative effects of AA in vivo. In a recent cross-sectional study, omnivores reported significantly worse mood than vegetarians despite higher intakes of EPA and DHA. This study investigated the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood.

FINDINGS:

Thirty-nine omnivores were randomly assigned to a control group consuming meat, fish, and poultry daily (OMN); a group consuming fish 3-4 times weekly but avoiding meat and poultry (FISH), or a vegetarian group avoiding meat, fish, and poultry (VEG). At baseline and after two weeks, participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales. After the diet intervention, VEG participants reduced their EPA, DHA, and AA intakes, while FISH participants increased their EPA and DHA intakes. Mood scores were unchanged for OMN or FISH participants, but several mood scores for VEG participants improved significantly after two weeks.

CONCLUSIONS:

Restricting meat, fish, and poultry improved some domains of short-term mood state in modern omnivores. To our knowledge, this is the first trial to examine the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood state in omnivores.

PMID:22333737[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID:PMC3293760